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On 15 September 2021, after eighteen months of confidential negotiations, the "AUKUS" tripartite military alliance between the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia was made public. This alliance involves the development of trilateral cooperation in many areas of defence, including cyber and artificial intelligence. As part of this project, the Australian Navy's acquisition of American- or British-built nuclear attack submarines effectively puts an end to the €56 billion contractual commitment made with France in 2016.

With this second thematic dossier prepared by our Studies and Research Department, we are building on the new dynamic of exchanges with the "IHEDN community" that I called for in our first publication.

The recent termination of the contract between France and Australia, through Naval Group, combines two different timeframes. That of the short term, of reaction, and that of the long term of armament programmes.

As we present here our initial analyses, which are bound to evolve over the coming weeks and months, let's bear in mind this duality of timeframes.