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By accessing this site, you accept all of the following provisions:


The website is the property of the Institut des hautes études de défense nationale, a public administrative establishment whose main mission is to disseminate defence culture among the Nation's executives and to promote defence teaching (decree of 23 June 2009). Its head office is located at 1 place Joffre, 75700 PARIS SP07.
The publication director and editor is the Director of the Institute.

  • publication director: Lieutenant General Benoît Durieux ;
  • deputy publication director: Nicolas Basselier, prefect ;
  • Communications advisor: Alexia Graff. 

CONCILIUM is the service provider responsible for the direct and permanent storage of the site.

IHEDN is a national public administrative institution (EPA) and a national public teaching institution.
- SIRET NO. 197546864 00012
- NAF CODE 8542Z

 The Institute is accredited as a continuing education establishment under number 1175P015975 awarded on 5/9/95.


The IHEDN holds the property rights to the various elements (works and materials) that make up the site. www.ihedn.frThis is the case in respect of intellectual property rights based on French law as well as European and international texts guaranteeing such rights.
All the elements that you see or read on the site, as well as the site itself, are protected by copyright law. You therefore undertake to comply with present and future intellectual property rules and, in particular, not to reproduce, summarise, modify, alter or redistribute in any number or for collective use, even free of charge, without prior written authorisation from the publisher, the articles, studies, logos, models and materials that make up the informational content of the site.
Whether in whole or in part, any reproduction or representation, any communication or redistribution or making available of the elements listed above (in particular electronic reproduction, dissemination via the Internet or intranet or the creation of archives) without the written consent of the site editor constitutes an infringement and a violation of the rights of the database producer, which are punishable under French, European and international laws in force. The IHEDN reserves the right to prosecute any act of counterfeiting, including criminal proceedings.
The following uses are possible, with the authorisation of IHEDN, and with respect for the source (author's name and logo): for educational purposes : it is possible to disseminate certain elements, in whole or in part, for teaching or research purposes, while respecting the source (author's name, institutional logo, etc.) and the work, and free of charge; as part of university research; as current information; as a reference; for the purposes of reproduction for strictly private use and not intended for collective use; as a short quotation provided that the extract does not represent an essential element of the work cited, even if it must be brief. The short quotation must not give the extract more than an incidental role, as the work incorporating it must be able to survive its removal. Similarly, short quotations and repetitions of insubstantial extracts must not give rise to methodical or systematic repetitions likely to allow undue exploitation of the original work in disregard of the legitimate rights of its owner;
    for reproduction or temporary storage.


Any quotation or creation of a link must respect the source (name of the author, date and place of publication) and the rights mentioned here. The link, defined as any elaborate technical means enabling the Internet user (i.e. any natural or legal person with private access without the possibility of redistribution to another site) to be "redirected" from one Internet site directly to another Internet site, must open a window recalling the site of origin. However, any link from a paying site must be authorised in advance by the IHEDN.
The IHEDN reserves the right to request the cessation and deletion of a link if it is of such a nature or is likely to cause it harm and/or infringe its moral or proprietary interests and in particular if it contradicts the Institute's editorial policy.
In addition, the IHEDN provides links from its site to other affiliated and non-affiliated sites. These sites are independent of the site. The IHEDN does not publish or control these sites. Under no circumstances do these links constitute an approval or partnership between the IHEDN and these sites. Consequently, the IHEDN cannot be held responsible for the content, products, advertising or any other elements or services presented on these sites.
Please note that affiliated and non-affiliated sites are subject to their own terms of use and privacy protection policies.


For all requests for prior authorisation, please contact us :

- by electronic mail :
- or by post: editorial manager of the IHEDN website - École militaire, 1 place Joffre, 75700 PARIS SP07.


IHEDN or any other party involved in connection with the site cannot be held responsible for any damage that may result from accessing or using the site, including any deterioration or virus that may infect your computer equipment or any other property.
IHEDN makes every reasonable effort to update the accurate information published on the site and cannot be held responsible for any errors or omissions.
You will indemnify, defend and hold harmless the IHEDN and its directors, officers, employees, representatives, licensees or anyone else involved in the creation, production and distribution of the Site, from and against any and all claims, liabilities, costs and expenses arising from your breach of the provisions of this Charter or in connection with your use of the Site.


The site is set up by the IHEDN, which is based in France. The IHEDN is subject to French law and in the event of a dispute, only the French courts will have jurisdiction. Internet users accessing the site from outside France must ensure that they comply with locally applicable laws.


IHEDN reserves the right for any reason and at its sole discretion to terminate, modify, suspend or interrupt access to all or part of the site, including in particular the content, functionalities or hours of availability, without prior notice.
You acknowledge and accept that in the context of using the Site, you are personally responsible for all the equipment necessary to enable this connection to the Internet, the costs of which remain at your expense.
In order to ensure its security and guarantee access to all, this website uses software to monitor the flows on the site, to identify unauthorised attempts to connect or change information, or any other initiative that may cause further damage. Unauthorised attempts to upload information, to alter information, to cause damage and in general to undermine the availability and integrity of this site are strictly prohibited and will be punished by the penal code.
Article 323-1 of the Criminal Code states that fraudulently accessing or remaining in all or part of an automated data processing system (as in the case of a website) is punishable by two years' imprisonment and a fine of €30,000. Article 323-3 of the same code states that fraudulently introducing data into an automated processing system or fraudulently deleting or modifying the data it contains is punishable by five years' imprisonment and a fine of €75,000.


The IHEDN is committed to respecting the privacy of site users. This paragraph on the protection of personal data will explain the nature of the information collected on the site during your visit and the use that may be made of it.


The IHEDN website is registered with the Commission nationale de l'informatique et des libertés under number 801245. The data requested when registering online or requesting information is necessary for its management. It is intended for IHEDN, which is responsible for this processing.
Under the terms of articles 38 to 40 of the French Data Protection Act no. 78-17 of 6 January 1978, amended by Act 2004-801 of 6 August 2004, you have the right to access, modify, rectify and delete data concerning you. To exercise this right, please contact the person responsible for the editorial management of the website, IHEDN - École militaire, 1 place Joffre, 75700 PARIS SP07 or at the following address


The site provides links to other affiliated and non-affiliated sites. These sites may also collect data of a personal or non-personal nature. Consultation of these sites and the collection and use of personal data on these sites are subject to the terms of use and personal data protection policies of the said sites.


The security of personal data is one of our concerns. We will therefore endeavour to take reasonable technical measures to prevent any loss or misappropriation during the collection or storage of data that you may have communicated to us.


The IP address is a number that is automatically assigned to your computer by your Internet service provider when you surf the Web. When you visit pages on our site, our servers record your IP address.
The IHEDN collects IP addresses for the management of its own computer system and for the analysis of the use made of the site. We do not link IP addresses to any personal information, which means that your visits are recorded but that you remain anonymous to us.


IHEDN reserves the right to modify or, more generally, update the provisions of this Charter at any time and without prior notice. We therefore invite you to consult it regularly.


If you have any questions about this notice or your personal data, please contact the person responsible for the editorial management of the IHEDN - École Militaire website, 1 place Joffre, 75700 PARIS SP07,